Caring for Budgerigars (pet budgies)


Quick Facts About Budgies:

  • Scientific Name: Melopscittacus undulatus

  • Life expectancy: 7-12 years

  • Adult bodyweight:  35-55g

  • Sexual maturity: 6-9 months

  • Origin: Desert Regions of Australia

  • Sexual Dimorphism: Yes - males blue cere, females brown.

General Description

Also known as grass parakeets or shell parakeets, budgerigars (budgies) are one of the most popularly kept pet birds worldwide. There are a variety of colour, pattern and feather varieties available. Budgies are highly social birds and require regular interaction with their human or bird flock. Budgerigars are chatterboxes, and love to sing. Pet budgies can also be taught to whistle and talk. Single male budgies tend to be the best talkers.

Housing Budgerigars

Whilst budgerigars can make excellent aviary birds, the information that follows specifically relates to pet budgies.

Cages should be considered a sanctuary and a resting place for your pet budgie, although supervised access outside of the cage is recommended for all birds for exercise and mental stimulation. Cages should be as large as possible, and at a minimum should allow your budgerigar to fully open his or her wings in all three dimensions.

Rectangular cages are recommended. Cages with curved sides are not comfortable for parrots.

Avian vets at Bird Vet Melbourne recommend that cages should back onto at least one solid wall to help your pet budgie feel secure. If placed near a window, part of the cage should have a restricted view so your budgie can hide if feeling nervous or stressed.

Cage Equipment - perches, feed dishes and toys!

Bird Vet Melbourne recommends that your pet budgerigar should have at least two natural branch perches of appropriate  diameters in the cage. Natural wood perches are preferred. Avoid dowel and sandpaper perches as these can cause foot problems, and have minimal effects on claw length. Perches should be placed at opposite ends of the length of the cage, allowing your budgie to fly between them. Ideally place the widest perch in the highest position; this is where your budgie will sleep.

Food and water dishes should be made of stainless steel, and positioned to avoid contamination with droppings (i.e. not directly under perches). Hooded dishes should be avoided as they can make feeding difficult and may prevent bathing. Place feed and water dishes at opposite ends of the cage to encourage exercise.

Toys are very important for your pet budgie, providing mental stimulation for these clever birds. Budgerigar vets at Bird Vet Melbourne recommend that toys be positioned around the edges of the cage near perches. Avoid placing toys or SWINGS  in the middle of the cage as this restricts flight. Toys should NOT necessarily be rotated . Budgies love to chew so chewable toys or perches are very important.

Lighting for Budgies

All parrots kept indoors should be provided with artificial full spectrum light (UV-A & UV-B) or access to sunlight outdoors to allow normal vitamin D metabolism (and breeding behaviour).  If placing your caged budgie outside, ensure that they are supervised, have shade and are safe from predators.

Diet for A Pet Budgie

Feeding a balanced diet is very important to prevent health problems in birds. Avian vets at Bird Vet Melbourne recommend feeding your pet budgie a mixture of the following 4 food groups every  day:

  1.  Mixed budgie seed – About  1 teaspoon per bird per day
  2. Dark leafy green and red/yellow vegetables EVERY SINGLE DAY e.g. spinach, silver beet, bok choy, broccoli, green beans, grated carrots,  capsicums.
  3.  Good quality bird pellets or crumble should be available at all times. Suggested brands include Harrisons, Murphy's, Vetafarm and Zupreem.
  4.  Small amounts of low fat, low sugar, low salt  human foods such as pasta, oats, toast and eggs can also be fed occasionally.

In Addition:

  • A cuttlefish bone and occasional shell grit  is recommended .
  • Sprouting grasses are also very good for your bird.

DO NOT FEED: chocolate, avocado, alcohol or coffee to your pet budgerigar as these are toxic and can be fatal.

Fresh water should always be available. Food and water should be changed daily.

Common Budgie Illnesses:

Trichomoniasis (Canker) in the Budgerigar:

Caused by the parasite Trichomonas gallinum, this condition is frequently seen in budgies at Budgie Vet Melbourne, and can cause vomiting and regurgitation (often seen as sticky head feathers), crop distension and in some cases respiratory disease in young budgies, and is a common  cause of  death.  This is a significant  budgerigar  disease in Australia  and  we test all new budgerigars for it.


Megabac – is caused by the fungi Macrorhabdus ornithogaster. It may cause vomiting and/or diarrhea, slow insidious  weight loss, and is often fatal.  Affected birds can not digest their food as the acid secretion in the stomach is affected.

Scaly Mites - in Budgies

Cnemidocoptes pilae are microscopic mites that cause excessive scaling of the skin as they burrow. These mites are found on the featherless areas of the skin, hence common places they are found include the beak, cere, around the eye, legs and vent.


Internal Parasites in budgerigars. WORMS and COCCIDIA

Round worms and coccidia are common problems in both pet birds and aviary birds when there is poor hygiene and birds inadvertently contaminate their food with their droppings.   (Avoid putting shell grit on the floor of the cage for this reason.)

Cancer in Pet Budgies

Cancer is very common in budgies , types of cancers include , testicular cancer (Sertoli Cell tumours), Ovarian and Uterine cancer , kidney cancer (e.g. adenocarcinomas) and fatty tumors (lipomas and xanthomas).

Chlamydiosis/Psittacosis in Budgies

The intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pscittaci causes chlamydiosis in many bird species. Many birds can be carriers of Chlamydia without showing any clinical signs, but where present these include discharge from the eyes and nostrils, yellow-green discolouration of droppings, anorexia, breathing difficulties, weight loss and the general ‘sick bird’ fluffed up look. See here for further information (link).

Circovirus/"Runners"/French Moult/Beak and Feather Disease in Budgerigars

This is a viral disease that causes damage to developing feathers, mostly in young birds. Affected budgies have poor plumage and may have stunted primary and secondary wing feathers or short tail feathers (‘Runners’). Some birds may die.


Polyomavirus is a virus that causes feather abnormalities in young birds. It also causes generalised immunosuppression that can affect a number of organs. Acute forms may cause sudden death in budgies aged 10-25 days. See here for more information (link).


Caused by a build up of uric acid crystals (usually in the joints) secondary to kidney disease, this can cause lameness in budgerigars.


High fat, high carbohydrate diets such as all seed diets combined with a lack of exercise predispose budgerigars to becoming overweight and developing lipomas and other health issues. See here for more information.

Budgie Cere Colour Change

The Expert budgie vet notes that the colour of a budgie's cere can change due to various reasons, some of which include:

Budgerigar Vet -Age: As budgies mature and reach sexual maturity, their cere can change colour. In males, the cere may turn blue, while in females, it may turn brown or tan.

Hormonal changes: The budgie-veterinarian notes hormonal changes, such as during breeding season or egg-laying, can also cause a change in the colour of a budgie's cere. In females, the cere may become more crusty and brown, while in males, it may become more vibrant and blue.

Health issues: Vets-for-budgerigar note certain health issues, such as respiratory infections or liver problems, can cause a change in the color of a budgie's cere. For example, a pale or whitish cere may indicate liver problems or a lack of vitamin A in the diet, while a red or inflamed cere may indicate an infection.

Genetics: Expert Bugie vets note that budgies may have naturally different-coloured ceres due to their genetics or mutations.

It's important to note that changes in the colour of a budgie's cere can sometimes be a sign of an underlying health issue, so if you notice a significant or concerning change in your bird's cere color, it's best to have them examined by an avian veterinarian that see3 budgies routinely – an expert budgie-vet.

Sertoli call tumours in male budgerigars

Sertoli cell tumors are a testicular tumour that can occur in male budgies. The vet for budgerigars note that the Budgie sertoli Cell tumors produce estrogen, which cause feminization of the bird's appearance and behaviour. This feminization can include a change in the colour of the bird's cere from blue to brownish or pinkish.

Normally, in male budgies, the cere is a blue color, but when a Sertoli-cell-tumor is present, the tumour produces oestrogen, which can cause the cere to change color. The estrogen can also cause other feminizing changes, such as the development of a brownish or tan coloration on the bird's head and body feathers.

If you notice a change in your male budgie's cere colour from blue to brownish or pinkish, it's important to have him examined by an avian veterinarian that understands budgies – A budgie -Vet . Sertoli cell tumors can be aggressive and may require surgical intervention, and early detection and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome – but its often a poor prognosis – treating Budgies with a Sertoli cell tum our with a GNRH agonist implant has been helpful in some casez.

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